What is Chalara ash dieback?
Chalara ash dieback is a serious disease of ash trees caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. The disease affects ash trees by blocking the water transport systems, causing leaf loss, lesions in the wood and on the bark. This leads to the dieback of the crown of the tree. Trees become brittle over time with branches breaking away from the main body of the tree. If they are not dealt with, trees are at risk of collapsing, presenting an immediate danger to the surrounding area.
How long have you had Chalara ash dieback at Westonbirt?
Chalara ash dieback was first identified at Westonbirt Arboretum in 2015, and since then we have been working closely with Forest Research to monitor the infected trees. To ensure the future health of this ancient woodland we removed thousands of infected ash trees to make way for new plantings of various species. We are now entering phase 2 of the management plan which involves thinning and coupe felling.
What is involved with the removal of ash trees?
In 2019 some initial work was done to remove infected ash trees from main pathways in the arboretum, to ensure the safety of visitors and staff. In February 2021, contractors began work to remove infected trees from Silk Wood. In some areas, we removed large numbers of trees to replant with different species. In other areas, we did a non-intervention approach.
We identified and marked any ash specimens that showed signs of tolerance to the disease or little die-back. These trees were not felled and will be monitored going forward.
In early 2022 we are entering phase 2 of the management plan which involves thinning and coupe felling.
Thinning: removal of a proportion of trees to promote growth of remaining trees. Usually trees with poor form or health issues are removed at this stage leaving well developed trees to thrive.
Coupe Felling: this is a type of continuous cover forestry where small groups of trees are removed to create openings and glades within woodlands. This produces a product (timber) and encourages biodiversity. Sunlight and a new woodland edge encourages flora and fauna. Again, trees to be removed will be identified by either their form, health or potentially their value as a timber product. Within this coupe, trees will naturally regenerate creating an uneven age structure recognised for its ecological benefits.
How large an area did you clear-fell?
About 6 hectares of ash trees were clear felled over winter 2021. We left other species where possible within these clear fell areas.
About 22.78 hectares of ash trees will be thinned over winter 2022. We will leave other species where possible within these thinning areas.
What machinery will you use to complete the work?
The clear-felling work was done through use of a harvester. Harvesters are large forest vehicles which have an articulated boom holding a harvester head. This is used to fell and strip the tree's branches, then cut them into logs, in one swift process. It can take a harvester a few seconds to remove a tree meaning this work was carried out as swiftly and safely as possible to cause the least disruption to peoples visits. Thinning will involve a mix of harvester machinery and chainsaw felling in denser species areas.
Am I going to take ash dieback home to my garden after I visit?
We all have a part to play in the prevention of the spread of pests and diseases. Though Chalara ash dieback spreads on the wind-borne spores of the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, and so there is little we can do to prevent the spread of the disease, the spread of other threats can be slowed or stopped by:
- Pests and diseases can spread in the mud and debris on shoes, paws and tyres, so simple measures such as cleaning your boots and car wheels after a walk in the Forest can help to limit the spread of diseases.
- Don’t risk it! Don’t bring any plant or tree products back from trips abroad, because these might be carrying harmful non-native tree pests or pathogens.
- Be vigilant! Report any trees that you suspect are in ill-health to the Forestry Commission using Tree Alert
- Join us! You can help us to protect Silk Wood against the threat of pests and diseases by joining the Friends of Westonbirt Arboretum. Your membership fee goes directly back into maintaining Silk Wood and Westonbirt Arboretum for future generations.
Has my ash tree got ash dieback – what should I do?
You can help the Forestry Commission Report monitor the spread of the disease by reporting any trees that you suspect are in ill-health to the Forestry Commission using Tree Alert.
Staff at Westonbirt Arboretum are unable to advise on identification or to confirm whether a tree is infected of trees not within the arboretum.
Please note that felling ash trees, especially ones that are diseased, is a difficult and dangerous job if done incorrectly. We would urge anyone considering removal of trees from their garden to seek professional help, however we are unable to recommend any particular companies.
Why aren’t you replanting straight away?
In order to allow the soil to recover from the impact of felling and be ready for replanting, the ground will need to lie fallow for several years before replanting can begin.
All our planting is done over the winter months – generally January and February. Early planting means that the young trees have a chance to settle in with minimal fear of drought, and are well established come the spring.
We will be using this opportunity to assess what species will thrive in Silk Wood and which will create a resilient woodland for the future. There will, therefore, be a certain amount of research and experimentation into what trees we want in Silk Wood in the future.
Until this point, you have had a policy of leaving infected ash trees and monitoring them. Why has this changed?
Chalara ash dieback is a relatively new disease, and we are leading the way in working out how best to manage the disease.
As ash trees succumb to the disease their wood becomes increasingly brittle – increasing the risk of falling branches, and making the tree more dangerous for our staff to take down. A survey conducted in July demonstrated that around 120 woodland ash, and a number of specimen trees would need to be removed initially, and the larger scale felling would need to start early 2021. Taking out the infected ash trees gives us the opportunity to make way for the replanting of new species that will create a more resilient woodland.
Why don't you just leave the ash trees? Deadwood is good for biodiversity.
As ash trees succumb to the disease their wood becomes increasingly brittle – increasing the risk of falling branches, and making the tree more dangerous for our staff to take down. A survey conducted in July demonstrated that around 120 woodland ash, and a number of specimen trees would need to be removed initially, and the larger scale felling would need to start early 2021. Taking out the infected ash trees will also give us the opportunity to make way for the replanting of new species that will create a more resilient woodland.
How will you choose which trees to replant with?
We have not yet decided exactly which species of tree we will be replanting with – though our current plans are to replant with natives and near natives. We will work closely with colleagues in Forest Research to determine which species will make Silk Wood resilient to a changing world in years to come and we will continually monitor the species we plant. The information we learn from this project will allow us to share findings and best practise with other organisations and woodland managers in the UK and abroad.